While Settings has been around since the early days of Windows 10, users have had to switch back and forth between the old Control Panel and the new Settings, but Microsoft has been working on porting over the old paradigm to fit with the new cleaner look.
The latest group of settings to make this transition looks to be Fonts, and although Fonts Settings aren't currently enabled in the latest Windows 10 Insider build (17074), the bits apparently are lurking within the system, and Microsoft watcher Rafael Rivera has managed to get them working.
Along with the regular Font controls you would expect from the Control Panel (uninstall, metadata, etc.), Settings gives you a better look at the Fonts themselves, and even allows you to try out your own text in that latest and greatest font you just found.
If you remember, Microsoft has started making Fonts available through the Microsoft Store, and with the new Settings UI, should make font management quite a bit cleaner with Windows 10 moving forward.
Rafael suspects we may see this new Settings addition as early as the next Insider Build, and we'll be keeping our eyes out for it as we slowly but surely loosen our grip on the tried and true Control Panel.